Rogue cops marked as Gamboa’s targets in his appointment as PNP chief Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college View comments Tom Brady most dominant player in AFC championship history Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil Eugenie Bouchard’s bid for Australian Open spot ends in qualifying Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netRoger Pogoy will officially make his return to the Philippine team on Sunday in a must-win duel against Kazakhstan in the sixth window of the Fiba World Cup Asian qualifiers.Pogoy missed Gilas Pilipinas’ last five games due to suspension for his participation in the brawl against Australia last July.ADVERTISEMENT Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Japeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for Ginebra MOST READ Jeremy Miado stopped by Dejdamrong in rematch Ginebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup title LATEST STORIES Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? The TNT swingman replaced Barangay Ginebra guard Scottie Thompson in the 12-man lineup.Andray Blatche, Jayson Castro, June Mar Fajardo, Gabe Norwood, Japeth Aguilar, Poy Erram, Mark Barroca, Marcio Lassiter, Paul Lee, Troy Rosario and Thirdy Ravena.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGolden State Warriors sign Lee to multiyear contract, bring back ChrissSPORTSCoronation night?SPORTSThirdy Ravena gets offers from Asia, Australian ball clubsGilas is coming off a rousing 84-46 win over Qatar on Friday.Blatche led the way with 17 points, 15 rebounds, seven assists, two steals and two blocks. Ginebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup title
Measles outbreaks in Venezuela, Brazil and recently the United States of America have resulted in the continuation of stringent measures in Guyana, which were implemented some two years ago to prevent an epidemic.Acting Maternal Child Health Officer, Dr Oneka ScottActing Maternal Child Health (MCH) Officer Dr Oneka Scott told Guyana Times on Saturday that as long as there are active cases in areas close to Guyana’s border, prevention and vaccination should be taken seriously.“Last vaccination week and the year before, the Ministry has been saying that our threat is real. As long as there is an outbreak of any vaccine-preventable disease in a neighbouring country, we have to step up our immunization plan and that is what we have been doing for the past two years,” Scott stated.In 2015, there was an outbreak in Venezuela. Between June 2017 and October 2018, some 7500 suspected cases of measles were reported in Venezuela. With thousands of Venezuelan refugees flocking the Cooperative Republic in 2017, the World Health Organisation (WHO) had declared an emergency response for Guyana, following Venezuela’s crises and a subsequent spread of this re-emerging disease to Brazil.Guyanese are urged to get the vaccinations administered for measles preventionSince then, Guyana has sought to have its military, medical and police personnel and persons residing in border communities vaccinated to maintain a clean slate of zero cases.“The outbreak continues in Brazil, in the state of Roraima, and Bolivar in Venezuela. Roraima state is very close to Boa Vista and Bom Fin in the Lethem Border. Because you have active cases of measles and because we have high traffic with both borders, at any point in time, we can have a patient that comes over from Brazil or Venezuela. If the Ministry is aware of the threat, the traffic from not only Venezuela but Brazil, we will do all efforts like we have been doing through the National Measles Response Plan,” the MCH said.In the USA, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have recently reported an increase in cases amounting to over 970. With cases continuing in New York for some eight months, it was feared that the country can lose its measles elimination status. Scott indicated that the summer period will see increased visits to Guyana as she urged persons to get their vaccines at the health centres.“Guyana has had stringent measures since the outbreak. As long as the US has active cases, it is summer and there will be lots of traffic between New York and Guyana. Everybody should make sure that [they are vaccinated] because the US border patrol and public health system have some extremely strict regulations.”As part of the campaign, vaccines are available for children and adults. There has been collaboration with the Brazilian counterpart to keep the disease at bay.“The campaign has been ongoing for two years. We have vaccines for children as well as adults. Since 2015, there has been an outbreak of measles in Venezuela. The reason Guyana stepped up this campaign in the bordering areas over the past two years is because of that outbreak. We’ve had collaborative vaccination efforts from Brazil to keep the threats to Guyana at a minimum and to keep Guyana measles free,” Dr Scott related.Measles is an infectious viral disease, causing fever and rash. The virus lives in the mucus of the nose and throat of an infected person. When someone with measles coughs, sneezes or talks, infected droplets spray into the air and when other people inhale them, contraction is inevitable.Earlier this month, the Public Health Ministry had issued a statement which informed that they have drafted “an emergency plan outlining different components of the blueprint including risk communication, immunisation coverage, cold storage and International Health Regulations (IHR)”.
AG report finds…but Finance Ministry maintains it broke no lawBy Jarryl BryanThe 2016 Auditor General Report has red flagged the fact that the Consolidated Fund of Guyana is in the throes of a heavy overdraft showing that at the ending of last year, the fund reflected an overdraft of $67.5 billion and the cash book, $86Minister of Finance, Winston Jordanbillion.The state of the new Consolidated Fund is, in fact, worse than in 2015. At the ending of 2015, the Consolidated Fund was overdrawn by $42.6 billion. According to Auditor General Deodat Sharma, the difference of $18.5 billion between the bank and the cash book was due to a deposit of $6.7 billion not being debited to the cash book. There was also some $22.7 billion in un-presented cheques.It was also revealed that deposits totalling $5.3 billion were not credited to the bank account, while debit advances of $1.6 billion were not credited to the cash book. Sharma revealed that after examining the reconciliation of the Consolidated Fund account, he noticed that 7150 cheques totalling $9.4 billion were processed and printed during the month of January 2017.However, in response, the Finance Ministry affirmed that Finance Minister Winston Jordan granted Heads of Budget Agencies has the right to draw down for expenditures up to the end of December 2016.It was noted that the Fiscal Management and Accountability Act 2003 makes provisions for the account to be overdrawn in order to make up for cash shortfallsAuditor General Deodat Sharmawhile implementing the budget.“The Ministry of Finance also ensured that no further expenditures were being affected against the appropriation allotments after December 31, 2016, by activating the controls within IFMAS (Integrated Financial Management System),” the report stated.Defending the printing of cheques into January, the Ministry noted that a centralised system in the Account General’s Department has always had control of this. It noted that as it was unable to complete the printing of cheques that were approved last year, the exercise was continued into 2017.Article 216 of the Constitution of Guyana states, “All revenues or other (sums of) money raised or received by Guyana (not being revenues or other sums of moneyThe Ministry of Financepayable by or under an Act of Parliament into some other fund established for any specific purpose; or that may, by or under such an Act, be retained by the authority that received them for the purpose of defraying the expenses of that authority) shall be paid into and from one consolidated fund.”Article 217 stipulates that money cannot be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund except: “(a) to meet expenditure that is charged upon the fund by this Constitution or by any Act of Parliament; or (b) where the issue of those (sums of) money has been authorised by an Appropriation Act; or (c) where the issue of those (sums of) money has been authorised under Article 219.”
Sam Warburton said he used to dream of pulling on the lilywhite jersey and play for Tottenham, but what would you rather do? The Drive team needs your help … Sam Warburton 1
Listen back to some of the highlights of another top week on the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast.This week’s podcast features Harry Redknapp on England’s Euro 2016 failure and why Glenn Hoddle should be the man to succeed Roy Hodgson.Alan and Ray Parlour also reflect on Lionel Messi’s retirement with Argentine footballer Sergio Torres, while Piers Morgan blasted England’s flop footballers and announced he is abandoning his Arsene Wenger Out campaign.
Adam Lallana will be available to return for Liverpool later this month.The England international withdrew from Gareth Southgate’s squad for the country’s upcoming matches after suffering a groin strain in training, however a scan has revealed it is only a minor injury. Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars RANKED gameday cracker possible standings Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT REVEALED Liverpool news live: Klopp reveals when Minamino will play and issues injury update shining 1 smart causal England’s most successful clubs of the past decade, according to trophies won Lallana should therefore come back into contention by late September in time for the start of Liverpool’s cup campaigns.“It’s a minor setback, which isn’t ideal, as I’ve been in great shape until now, but it’s positive news that it’s only a brief lay-off,” Lallana told Liverpoolfc.com.“I’m pleased I’ll be back available for Liverpool, both domestically and in the Champions League during September, and then England again for the next break.“I know I can make a significant contribution over the course of a long season and that’s where my focus will remain – with so much to play for. huge blow Latest Liverpool News How the Premier League table could change after the Boxing Day fixtures Adam Lallana missed out on the World Cup squad after an injury-plagued 2017/18 Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury REVEALED Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade Every current Premier League club’s best kit from the past decade silverware latest Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won “Doing my best and giving everything for my teammates, management and supporters of club and country is all that matters.“I’m back at Melwood now making sure my time off the pitch is as short as possible, so I’ll be supporting Gareth and the boys from up here,” he concluded.
shining Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT REVEALED In his place, Michail Antonio led the line but missed a host of great chances against the Blues as they added a crucial point to their Premier League tally.However, the winger looks set to adopt a more recognised role out wide in order to accommodate Arnautovic back in the side.Irons boss Manuel Pellegrini said in his news conference on Friday: “Marko worked from Wednesday with the squad so I think he is 100 per cent fit for tomorrow.”The former Stoke City forward is in the form of his life and has scored three of the Hammers‘ five goals in the league so far already this season, assisting the other one. Marko Arnautovic is set to return to lead the line for West Ham United when they face Manchester United on Saturday.The Austrian missed the 0-0 draw with Chelsea at the London Stadium last time out with a knee injury which has troubled him since the Hammers lost to Arsenal last month. 2 Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won huge blow With Manchester United in danger of falling apart under Jose Mourinho already this season, Arnautovic will surely be desperate to get after a back four which has looked shaky all season.The Red Devils boss is currently locked in a furious dispute with star man Paul Pogba over the midfielder’s Instagram activity. silverware Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars gameday cracker REVEALED Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card no dice Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury 2 Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? Latest Premier League News Arnautovic picked up the knee injury during the defeat to Arsenal Arnautovic has been bothered by a knee injury since the beginning of the season England’s most successful clubs of the past decade, according to trophies won
DONEGAL SOUTHUnder 14 League Division 1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment 31-Mar-2013 Bundoran 9 – 9 3 – 7 Naomh Naille BundoranMinor League Section 2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment 29-Mar-2013 Bundoran 2 – 7 3 – 11 Kilcar BundoranMinor League Section 1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 Naomh Sean 4 – 16 1 – 2 Naomh Brid/Pettigo Naomh SeanUnder 14 League Division 1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment 28-Mar-2013 Four Masters 4 – 17 2 – 5 Naomh Mhuire Four MastersMinor League Section 2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment27-Mar-2013 Naomh Naille 4 – 6 3 – 17 Na Rossa Naomh Naille Minor League Section 1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment26-Mar-2013 Aodh Ruadh 0 – 6 1 – 9 Dungloe Aodh RuadhUnder 14 League Division 2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment25-Mar-2013 Ardara B 1 – 6 2 – 13 Killybegs ArdaraMinor League Section 1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment25-Mar-2013 Naomh Conaill 1 – 7 2 – 7 Naomh Mhuire Naomh ConnaillDONEGAL NORTHMinor League Division 2 Section 2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Termon 2 – 18 1 – 4 St Michaels The Burn RoadCOUNTY DONEGAL RESULTSSenior League Div2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Sean MacCumhaills 0 – 2 0 – 12 Glenswilly Sean Mac CumhaillSenior League Div1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Málainn/Malin 2 – 10 1 – 9 Ardara Connolly ParkSenior League Div2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Realt na Mara G.F.C 0 – 8 0 – 5 Gleann Fhinne BundoranSenior League Div1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Naomh Conaill 1 – 6 0 – 6 CLG Na Cealla Beaga Glenties Davy Brennan MemorialSenior League Div2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 An Clochán Liath 1 – 11 0 – 9 Naomh Mhuire DungloeDivision 2 Reserve LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Sean MacCumhaills 1 – 2 0 – 5 Glenswilly MacCumhaill ParkDivision 1 ResDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Kilcar 1 – 4 2 – 11 Four Masters Pairc Tamnaigh KilcarDivision 2 Reserve LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Realt na Mara G.F.C 0 – 4 1 – 9 Gleann Fhinne BundoranDivision 1 ResDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 Malin 3 – 8 2 – 8 Ardara Connolly Park31-Mar-2013 Naomh Conaill 1 – 7 0 – 6 Killybegs Glenties Davy Brennan MemorialDivision 2 Reserve LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment31-Mar-2013 An Clochán Liath 1 – 10 1 – 8 Naomh Mhuire DungloeSenior League Division 3Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Naomh Colmcille 1 – 7 1 – 11 Na Dúnaibh/Downings Pairc Colmcille30-Mar-2013 St Naul’s 1 – 10 1 – 8 Aodh Ruadh Ballyshannon Páirc Gearóid O’GallachóirSenior League Division 4Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Naomh Pádraig Uisce Chaoin 3 – 3 1 – 15 Convoy Naomh Padraig Uisce ChaoinSenior League Division 3Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Naomh Pádraig Leifear 0 – 12 1 – 9 Red Hughs Naomh Padraig LeifearSenior League Division 4Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Na Rossa 1 – 4 2 – 4 Moville Na RossaSenior League Division 3Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Naomh Columba 0 – 11 2 – 6 Gaeil Fhánada Arús Seán Ó hÉinneDiv 3 Res LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Naomh Padraig Leifear 2 – 10 0 – 5 Red Hughs Naomh Padraig LeifearDiv 4 Res LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Naomh Pádraig Uisce Chaoin 0 – 5 0 – 9 Convoy TBCDiv 3 Res LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 St Nauls 0 – 13 2 – 5 Aodh Ruadh Páirc Gearóid O’Gallachóir30-Mar-2013 Naomh Colmcille 2 – 5 4 – 8 Downings Naomh ColmcilleSenior League Div2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Buncrana 2 – 7 0 – 6 Cloughaneely Buncrana ScarveyDiv 3 Res LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Naomh Columba 1 – 7 0 – 10 Fanad Gaels Arús Seán Ó hÉinneDivision 2 Reserve LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment30-Mar-2013 Buncrana 0 – 2 4 – 14 Cloughaneely Buncrana Scarvey29-Mar-2013 Buncrana 0 – 4 0 – 8 Glenswilly Buncrana ScarveySenior League Div1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 St Eunans 4 – 10 0 – 6 Kilcar St Eunan’sSenior League Division 4Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 Milford 1 – 11 1 – 6 Letterkenny Gaels Moyle ParkSenior League Div2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 Sean Mac Cumhaill 0 – 9 0 – 10 Naomh Muire Sean Mac Cumhaill29-Mar-2013 Buncrana 2 – 4 0 – 15 Glenswilly Buncrana ScarveySenior League Div1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 Naomh Conaill 0 – 7 1 – 8 Four Masters GlentiesSenior League Div2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 Termon 1 – 7 0 – 7 Cloich Cheann Fhaola TermonSenior League Division 4Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 Pettigo 0 – 2 6 – 15 Burt PettigoSenior League Div2Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 An Clochán Liath 2 – 9 0 – 11 Gleann Fhinne DungloeSenior League Div1Date Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 CLG Na Cealla Beaga 1 – 5 1 – 10 Ardara McDevitt ParkDiv 4 Res LeagueDate Team 1 Score Score Team 2 Venue Comment29-Mar-2013 Milford 1 – 11 1 – 8 Letterkenny Gaels Moyle ParkGAA – ALL YOUR WEEKEND RESULTS was last modified: March 31st, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:donegalGAA RESULTS
AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORERose Parade grand marshal Rita Moreno talks New Year’s Day outfit and ‘West Side Story’ remake The 18-school district also plans to build another elementary school at Avenue K-4 and 22nd Street West and a middle school at 45th Street West and Avenue K. Construction on the middle school will begin first, sometime in March, Gocke said. State funds will cover most of the cost of building the three campuses, and the district is considering placing a $40 million bond measure on the June 6 ballot to help finance the balance. The middle school will cost about $18 million, and the elementary schools $12 million each. The Lancaster School District has more than 16,000 pupils, about 200 more than last year, as new housing tracts continue to add more. LANCASTER – An elementary school planned for Lancaster’s east side, one of three the Lancaster School District plans to start next year, will not pose any significant environmental impacts, officials said Monday. The campus is planned for 15 acres of district-owned land at Kettering Street and 18th Street East. “It’s environmentally sound and ready to go,” Superintendent Steve Gocke said. “Hopefully, we will be under construction within the next year.” The board last week approved a resolution stating that the project would not have a significant effect on the surrounding environment. “The district must build new schools in order to house the growing student population and to complete the much-needed modernization projects to maintain proper and safe conditions at our older facilities,” a district report said. If trustees approve pursuing a bond, the district would work under the provisions of Proposition 39, which lowered the voter majority required for approval from two-thirds to 55 percent. Funds from a $29 million bond measure approved by district voters in 1999 have been exhausted by building Amargosa Creek Middle School and Jack Northrop and West Wind elementary schools and in several modernization projects. Karen Maeshiro, (661) 267-5744 email@example.com 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Remember the old artwork of planets gently forming out of dust orbiting a young star? That’s all gone. Reality has set it. Clumps of material a meter across need help – almost miraculous help – to avoid getting sucked into the star in a giant death spiral. If you don’t believe it, ask John Chambers of the Carnegie Institute why he wrote the following in Nature this week:1 The rarity of planetesimals smaller than 100 km in diameter at the end of stage 1 seems to rule out the possibility that dust aggregates somehow made it across the metre-size barrier by gradually sweeping up material from their surroundings. Instead, objects must have grown very rapidly from sub-metre-sized pebbles into 100-km-sized bodies, possibly in a single leap.To get a handle on what he just said, he is asking people to believe that pebbles grew into planets as big as Los Angeles instantaneously. That makes the “punctuated equilibria” theory in biology look tame by comparison. Chambers’ mostly optimistic article focused on the possibility of using current asteroid size distributions as a kind of archaeological probe into the early history of the solar system. Since most surviving asteroids appear to be at least 100 km in size (though this may be an observational selection effect), some models suggest it reflects the original size distribution after “stage 1” of planet formation, which he describes thusly: “Dust grains coalesced into planetesimals, objects of 1�1,000 km in diameter, through an unknown process.” Philosophers and logicians might enjoy a hearty debate over the difference between a miracle and an unknown process; see, for example Hugh Mclachlan’s discussion about miracles and science in New Scientist. Chambers relied heavily on four papers he cited, so we looked them up. One, by Blum and Wurm,2 was supposed to guarantee that dust grains will accrete into boulders (see the 12/05/2007 where Wurm was less sanguine about this). That paper started with a less optimistic tone: “The formation of planetesimals, the kilometer-sized planetary precursors, is still a puzzling process.” The authors examined all the latest experiments and models, and concluded that it is possible to get pebbles up to 10cm (if charged dust particles collide below 1 m/s), but after 1 meter in diameter is reached, erosional processes dominate. In frustration they said, “Due to the experimental findings discussed in the previous sections, it seems unlikely to form planetesimals by direct collisional sticking.” They attempted some special pleading by invoking unusual conditions to make the particles more sticky, but then appealed to miracles to get around the giant sucking sound: “However done, the formation of kilometer-sized planetesimals has to happen fast, as large bodies possess a rather short lifetime owing to their effective inward drift motion.” How fast? 100 years or less. Within a century of orbit, meter-size agglomerates will meet their fate in the stellar oven. “Thus, any model explaining the growth over this meter-size barrier has to be extremely fast to prevent the radial drift of the macroscopic bodies.” In the next few paragraphs, Blum and Wurm engaged in more special pleading, searching for solutions, only to conclude, “We now have a somehow detailed picture of how decimeter-sized dust aggregates form, but lack a self-consistent description of the further evolution of solid bodies to the planetesimal level.” Chambers borrowed his optimism from the sections that talked about the pebbles, but had to admit a big problem remains with the city-sized planetesimals: “However, the transition from pebble-sized dust aggregates to mountain-sized planetesimals is problematic and remains an unresolved issue,” he said. “This is unfortunate, because all subsequent stages of planet formation depend on it.” Then he agreed: meter-size clumps are quickly destroyed by the death spiral and collisions with neighbors. “For these reasons, it seems unlikely that objects will grow larger than about one metre as a result of the gradual accumulation of dust grains.” Bad news for planet builders. But then, Chambers renewed his optimism by referencing two recent models (2007, 2008), that though “still in their infancy” offer hope of a solution.3,4 Both models rely in disk instability to produce large clumps almost instantaneously. Johansen et al3 recognized the problem in their abstract: “How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem: boulders are expected to stick together poorly, and to spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits owing to a ‘headwind’ from the slower rotating gas.” Only by special pleading, invoking local concentrations of matter, were they able to model the formation of minor-planet-size bodies by processes faster than those trying to destroy them. Cuzzi et al4 also understood the destructive processes at work, e.g., “disruption by the ram pressure of the differentially orbiting nebula gas.” Their “scenario” which relied on turbulence and local knots of material, was stated as a work in progress: “Localized radial pressure fluctuations in the nebula, as well as interactions between differentially moving dense clumps, will also play a role that must be accounted for in future studies.” Neither of these “scenarios” seem ready for the imprimatur of scientific theory. Chambers recognized this. “Ideally, one would like observational data to test their viability,” he said. Indeed. This recalls Yogi Berra’s quip that in theory, theory and practice should agree, but in practice, they often don’t. So far, the models and experiments are pretty glum. That’s where Chambers turned a corner and talked archaeology. Referring to a paper by Morbidelli et al,5 he argued that present distributions of asteroids can tell us about original distributions of hopeful clumps in the early solar system. But to believe this, one has to believe that “asteroids were born big” (the title of their paper). Only by starting out with the assumption that the original clumps were 100km in diameter could they get the size distributions to match. Here is where Morbidelli et al stated the miracle in their words: “This supports the idea that planetesimals formed big, namely that the size of solids in the proto-planetary disk ‘jumped’ from sub-meter scale to multi-kilometer scale, without passing through intermediate values.” While we’re having fun with miracles, let’s pile them on: “the initial planetesimals had to have sizes ranging from 100 to several 100 km, probably even 1,000 km” they said. Now the dust particles leaped from centimeters to the size of continents. What they said next indicates that miracles must hereafter be included in planet-building scenarios: “This result sets a new constraint on planetesimal formation models and opens new perspectives for the investigation of the collisional evolution in the asteroid and Kuiper belts as well as of the accretion of the cores of the giant planets.” Meanwhile, the giant sucking sound continues. In this month’s Astrophysical Journal, Fred Adams and Anthony Bloch6 wrote more about Type I migration – the death spiral that conveys meter-size rocks to their doom. “In many planet-forming disks, the Type I migration mechanism, driven by asymmetric torques, acts on a short timescale and compromises planet formation,” they said. Only by appeals to luck could they get some clumps to survive the “Type I migration problem” – “If the disk also supports magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, however, the corresponding turbulent fluctuations produce additional stochastic torques that modify the steady inward migration scenario.” How many survive? The results for any given set of boundary conditions is “uncertain,” they admitted, but with some “expected disk properties” they arrived at calculations of 1% to 10% might survive; however, “the fraction of surviving planets decreases exponentially with time.” They did not discuss the accretion problem. They only said that unless something happens fast, by chance or miracle, don’t expect to find any planets left. For public consumption, JPL issued a feature story explaining all this in layman’s terms. Without blinking an eye, the story just stated that asteroids were born big, as if that is all you need to know. “Evidence is now mounting that these small space rocks quickly ‘jumped’ (or grew) in size from below one meter to multi-kilometer in size,” the article said – and that’s how they evaded the death spiral. And what is that evidence that has been mounting? It’s current asteroid distributions and computer simulations (and the realization that without starting big, they would be destroyed). The only way the simulators could keep the initial asteroids from obliterating themselves was by starting them out big – pebbles that somehow “quickly morphed into asteroids hundreds of kilometers in size.” How that happened, exactly, they couldn’t say. “Once their growth spurt was over, these massive celestial bodies began an epoch-sized game of demolition derby as they orbited the sun. Over the eons, and with each extraterrestrial pileup, came fewer and fewer large asteroids – a fragmentation process that continues to this day. Despite the modest sizes of asteroids today, the paper’s authors conclude that asteroids must have been born big.” New Scientist followed suit, blessing the papers that prescribed instant planets with positive vibes. This “sudden leap” scenario was blessed by John Chambers as a “big step forward.” The only one calling for a little more caution was Scott Kenyon of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. “It’s a nice story and they have a lot of evidence supporting their point of view,” he said, but he cautioned, according to New Scientist, that “it may have been difficult to complete planet formation in a reasonable time if there were no small asteroids at the outset.” Onlookers might question whether leaping over a gap is really increasing our understanding of how we got here.1. John Chambers, “Planetary science: Archaeology of the asteroid belt,” Nature 460, 963-964 (20 August 2009) | doi:10.1038/460963a.2. Blum and Wurm, “The Growth Mechanisms of Macroscopic Bodies in Protoplanetary Disks,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 46: 21-56 (Volume publication date September 2008) (doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.46.060407.145152).3. Johansen et al, “Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar disks,” Nature448, 1022-1025 (30 August 2007), doi:10.1038/nature06086; Received 19 December 2006; Accepted 5 July 2007.4. Cuzzi, Hogan and Sharif, “Toward Planetesimals: Dense Chondrule Clumps in the Protoplanetary Nebula,” The Astrophysical Journal, 2008 ApJ 687 1432-1447, doi: 10.1086/591239.5. Morbidelli, Bottky, Nesvorny and Levison, “Asteroids Were Born Big,” Icarus (July 2009), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.07.011.6. Adams and Bloch, “General Analysis of Type I Migration with Stochastic Perturbations,” The Astrophysical Journal, 701 (August 2009) 1381, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/1381.This has to be one of the most egregious lapses of scientific integrity in modern times. It is so bad, so full of special pleading and ad hoc speculation and storytelling contrary to the evidence, it is almost as bad as Darwinism – and you know what that means. Elsewhere we have complained that appeals to the Stuff Happens Law are not scientific.In chapter 8 of his recent book Signature in the Cell, Stephen Meyer elaborated on the “chance hypothesis” and described when it is legitimate in scientific explanation and when it is not. Something that is “one of the normal possible outcomes of a regular underlying process” can be explained as an outcome of chance. But when a one-time, highly-improbable outcome that exhibits specified complexity is explained by chance (the Stuff Happens Law), it amounts to an admission of ignorance. It’s a fancy way of saying, “We don’t know what happened” or “We can’t explain it” (p. 176).So when astronomers attribute the existence of planets to the luck of the draw, when our planet exhibits numerous cosmic “coincidences” that make life possible, they are using chance as an escape hatch to avoid clear evidence of design. Should we bless it with the honor of science? Some astronomers reading this may object to our use of the word “miracle” in their explanations. Planets, after all, do exist. They must have gotten here somehow. And the authors of these distinguished papers are scientists, not priests. They know calculus. They work at universities. They have degrees. It follows that anything they say and do must be respected as authoritative, even when they say that clumps went from pebble size to continent size without passing through the intermediate stages. Come on; scientists put on their pants one leg at a time like other mortals do. If we are to treat them like gods, then they are like Janus – one face weeping over the insurmountable problems with the physics, and the other smiling blissfully over the visions of what they can achieve in their models with a few miracles sprinkled in. You know what would get these false gods out of their troubles? A little exercise in thinking outside the box. They have forced themselves into the impossible situation of believing that they have to explain humans from the bottom up. Once upon a time, a bang happened; this led to some subatomic particles, then some atoms, then some clumps, some stars, some galaxies, some planets, some life, and some people. This sequence requires invocations of the Stuff Happens Law and miracles at every turn. Ask yourself: why must scientific explanation start from the bottom up? Why not a top-down approach? The answer is, of course, the necessity of a designing intelligence when explanation starts from the top down. But look at the benefits: it fits the scientific evidence (for example, see this JPL press release). The two greatest laws of physics (the first and second laws of thermodynamics) no longer have to be violated. Planets can have an explanation for their origin. Instead of dust disks building themselves up into systems, they collide and decay – just as we observe them doing. The order and design we observe has a sufficient cause. Things have meaning and purpose – including our desire to understand the world through science. Janus is a bad scientist. He needs a head transplant. We suggest the head of Kepler, who accepted his priesthood as a scientist and believed in a designing intelligence. He said, “Since we astronomers are priests of the highest God in regard to the book of nature, it befits us to be thoughtful, not of the glory of our minds, but rather, above all else, of the glory of God.”(Visited 39 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0